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    Notes:
    1. Lambda - the ratio of the actual air/fuel ratio (AFR) to the ideal stoichiometric AFR (14.7)
        AFR = 14.7 x (CO2 - CO) / (CO2 - O2 / 2), where the oxygen level (O2) in air is about 21%
    2. CO - Carbon Monoxide, HC - Hydrocarbons, NOx - Oxides of Nitrogen, CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
    3. O2 Sensor - Oxygen/Lambda Sensor feedback element
    4. Torque = K1 x Engine Volume x Combustion Pressure, where K1 is a constant, and
        Combustion Pressure = F (Compression Ratio, Combustion Charge)
    5. Horsepower = K2 x Torque x RPM, where K2 is a constant (1/5252), HP = Torque @ RPM = 5252
    6. Energy Loss (Engine Heat/Wear) = F (Engine RPMs, Friction)
    7. Pinging/Detonation = F (Ignition Timing, Fuel Octane/Mixture, Engine Load, Engine Temperature)
    8. Ignition Timing = F (Load, RPMs, Temperature), Ignition Advance Map ~ +RPMs, -Load, -Temp
    9. Ideal Catalytic Converter Reaction - HC + CO + O2 > CO2 + H2O
   10. Maximum Torque - Lambda = .86 (AFR = 12.6, CO > 1.0%, O2 < 1.0%)

 



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